Express trains in India

Express trains are express rail services of India. Express trains make a small number of stops, unlike ordinary passenger or localtrains. Because of their limited stops, these trains are able to obtain the highest speeds of any trains in India. An express train is one where the average speed, exclud

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Express trains are express rail services of India. Express trains make a small number of stops, unlike ordinary passenger or localtrains. Because of their limited stops, these trains are able to obtain the highest speeds of any trains in India. An express train is one where the average speed, excluding halts, is greater than 36 km/h. Including halts the speed may sometimes fall into the region of around 20 km/h for express trains. In some cases, trains run express where there is overlapping local train service available, and run local at the tail ends of the line, where there is no supplemental local service.

Rajdhani Express which was introduced in 1969 to connect New Delhi with the state capitals in India, travels at speeds up to 130 km/h. The Duronto Express trains introduced in 2009 (which run between major cities without any intermediate halts) also take as much time as a Rajdhani or Shatabdion the same route, courtesy the non-stop nature of their journey.

Superfast Express trains are express trains which make still fewer stops, as compared to ordinary express trains, achieving still shorter journey times. Tickets cost more than ordinary express trains as they have "superfast surcharge" added to them. Trains with an average speed, excluding halts, equaling or exceeding 55 kilometres per hour (34 mph) (60 kilometres per hour (37 mph) until the early 1990s) on both up and down journeys fall into this category and are numbered with a prefix of 12 or 22 or 20 (previously 2). Including halts the average speed often is below 55 km/h. In some cases, trains run superfast where there is an overlapping express service available, and run regular express trains where there is no supplementary express service.

As of 2015, 450 pairs of superfast trains ran on the Indian Railways. The 12908/Maharashtra Sampark Kranti Express(NZM/Hazrat Nizamuddin - BDTS/Bandra Terminus) is the fastest non-Shatabdi, non-Rajdhani train in India.

Mail trains are trains which earlier exclusively had mail coaches. Nowadays, all the trains in the country including mail trains carry mail in luggage coach itself. But the train branding continues to remain in use.The trains run on nation-wide Indian gauge. They run on tracks with classifications Group A, permitting speed up to 160 km/h, and Group B for speed up to 130 km/h. Lower speed limits apply when they are on tracks or railway switches, which have lower speed limits. The design of the railway switches, with a speed limit of 50–90 km/h, is the major bottleneck to higher speed.[6] Another constraint is the need to accommodate freight trains at the current top speed of 70 km/h.[7] These constraints to speed are consequences of sharing tracks with freight and lower speed suburban passenger trains.

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